Tuberculosis of bones and joints
Tuberculosis is caused by mycobacterium, and infects mainly the respiratory organs i.e. lungs. Mycobacterium is a group of bacteria that mostly cause tuberculosis and leprosy in humans. This infectious disease mostly present in developing nations and mainly caused by poor diet. At the point where tuberculosis spreads to other parts of the body, it is said to be extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). One type of EPTB is skeletal and articular tuberculosis. This constitutes about 10 percent of all EPTB cases in the United States. Tuberculosis of bones and joints is basically a type of tuberculosis that affects the spine, long bones and joints. This is also known as skeletal tuberculosis.
Basically, tuberculosis of the bones and joints should be considered seriously. The disease usually begins in the bones near the joints and the latter becomes infected in the initial stage of infection. The center of tuberculosis may arise in a bone far from the joint, but this is strange, and in the indications of the joint lies its main manifestations and significance. Osteoporosis affects the skeleton, which is made up of bones and joints. The most well-known type is myeloid tuberculosis. This occurs when the Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease spreads to the spine. Myeloid tuberculosis is also called Pott’s disease. This type of TB is more common in immature countries. It represents 2.2% to 4.7% of all tuberculosis cases in Europe and the United States.
Symptoms of skeletal tuberculosis
Oftentimes, you may have tuberculosis but do not notice the indications. TB of bones is exceptionally difficult to analyze in view of the fact that manifestations do not appear until the disease is severe or progresses. It may include:
- Severe back pain
- Inflammation in the back or joints
- Discomfort while moving or walking, especially for young children
- Spinal abscess
- Soft tissue hypertrophy
- Neurological problems
- TB-related meningitis
- Muscle deficiencies
Causes of tuberculosis of bones and joints
Bone tuberculosis occurs when you get tuberculosis and it spreads outside the lungs. Tuberculosis is usually transmitted from one person to another through the air. After you become infected with TB, it can travel through the blood from the lungs or lymphatic hubs to the bones, spine, or joints. Osteoporosis usually begins due to the rich vascular supply in the long bones and vertebrae.
Bone tuberculosis is fairly uncommon, but over the last several years, the prevalence of this infection in non-industrialized countries has increased somewhat due to the spread of AIDS. While it is uncommon, bone tuberculosis is difficult to analyze and can lead to serious problems if left untreated.
Diagnosis of Bone Tuberculosis
Standard methods for diagnosing bones tuberculosis include:
Biopsy: Your primary care doctor may arrange a biopsy, which involves removing a piece of contaminated tissue and looking at it for contamination.
Body fluid test: Your PCP may draw pleural fluid, which includes and warrants your lungs, to check for contamination. Or on the other hand, they may take cerebrospinal fluid from around your spinal cord. For bone or joint tuberculosis, your primary care provider (PCP) may draw synovial or joint fluid for testing.
PCR test: Examples taken by a primary care physician can also be tried using PCR. This test supports the genetic material of the mycobacteria and helps search for disease with modest amounts of fluid.