Testicular cancer is a type of cancer that affects the testicles, which are located in the scrotum. The testicles are responsible for the generation of male sex hormones such as testosterone, as well as sperm production.
When compared to other types of cancer, testicular cancer is fairly uncommon. Even if cancer has gone beyond the testicle, it is highly curable Just like ED.
Symptoms and Signs
Testicular cancer has the following indications and symptoms:
- Any of the testicles has a lump or enlargement.
- A weighty sensation in the scrotum.
- Dull aching in the lower abdomen or groin.
- A sudden buildup of fluid in the scrotum.
- Any discomfort or pain in one of the testicles or the scrotum.
- Tenderness or expansion of the breasts.
- Back pain in the lower back.
- Risk Factors and Causes
Risk factors and causes
When healthy cells in the testes alter, testicular cancer develops. The healthy cells induce uncontrolled proliferation, dividing even when new cells are not required.
A mass of cells occurs in the testicle as a result of the accumulation of cells. The germ cells that produce immature sperm are the source of the majority of testicular malignancies.
It is yet unknown why germ cells become cancerous.
The following are some of the factors that raise the risk of testicular cancer:
- Having cryptorchidism or a testicle that has not descended.
- The testicle develops abnormally.
- Testicular cancer runs in the family.
- Age is a factor (15 to 35 years old).
- When compared to black males, white men have a higher chance of testicular cancer.
Diagnosis and tests
In certain circumstances, the patient accidentally or while self-examining discovers testicular cancer. In the majority of cases, it is identified by a doctor during a routine medical checkup.
Some tests may be recommended by the doctor to identify if a lump is a testicular cancer, including:
- Ultrasound imaging: of the testicles and scrotum – Sound waves are utilized to create an image of the testicles and scrotum.
- Blood tests: are performed to determine the presence of tumor markers in the bloodstream.
- Physical examination and medical history: The doctor might use a physical examination and medical history to look for problems that could be associated with testicular cancer.
- A serum tumor marker test: This looks at a blood sample to see how much of particular chemicals associated with certain tumors are present. Tumor markers are the name for these compounds. The tumor markers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG or beta-HCG), and lactate dehydrogenase are frequently increased in testicular cancer (LDH).
- Testicle incision: The entire testicle is removed through an incision in the groin during an inguinal orchiectomy and biopsy operation. A testicular tissue sample is then examined for cancer cells.
- CT scans and X-rays: A CT scan is a medical procedure that involves the use of X-rays to create images of the inside of the body. When cancer is diagnosed or suspected, a CT scan (also known as a CAT scan) is used to detect if cancer has spread to other parts of the body. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis is used to diagnose testicular cancer. A CT scan or a standard X-ray are used to get images of the chest.
Medications and treatments
When it comes to treating testicular cancer, there are several aspects to consider. This covers the patient’s cancer stage, overall health, and personal preferences.
- The testicle and maybe adjacent lymph nodes are removed during surgery. In many cases of early-stage testicular cancer, surgery is the sole option.
- Radiation Therapy — Cancer cells are killed by high-powered energy beams. It’s occasionally used to treat seminoma-type testicular cancer. It is suitable for usage following testicle removal surgery. Radiation therapy, on the other hand, has the potential to create side effects such as fatigue and skin irritation.
- Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy medications travel throughout the body, destroying cancer cells that have spread from the original tumor. Chemotherapy may be used as a stand-alone treatment or in conjunction with lymph node removal surgery.
How to self-examine to prevent testicular cancer?
Although testicular cancer cannot be prevented, early identification is critical. Once a month, men should do a testicular self-examination (TSE). Notify your doctor right away if you observe any changes in your testicles, such as lumps or nodules, hardness, chronic pain, or a testicle that is getting bigger or smaller. Follow these procedures to conduct a self-examination.
After a warm shower or bath, take the exam. The warmth relaxes the scrotum’s skin, making it simpler to detect any strange sensations.
- Examine each testicle with both hands. Underneath the testicle, place your index and middle fingers, and on top, place your thumbs. Between your thumbs and fingers, roll the testicle. (It’s natural for testicles to vary in size.)
- You may observe a cord-like structure on the top and back of the testicle as you feel it. The epididymis is the name for this structure. It is used to store and transport sperm. It is not to be confused with a lump.
- Any lumps should be felt for. Lumps can range in size from peas to golf balls and are usually painless. If you find a lump, make an appointment with your doctor.
- The left and right testicles should be the same size, even though they are frequently different sizes. If you detect a change in the size of your testicles, make an appointment with your doctor.
Once a year, you should also obtain a physical examination.
Self-Care and Precaution
Following testicular cancer treatment, it’s critical to stick to your doctor’s appointment scheduled for follow-up appointments.
For the first couple of years, appointments are usually every few months, then less frequently.It’s natural to have anxiety, however, you can better manage your emotions by doing the following:
- Talk to your doctor about testicular cancer: This will help you feel more at ease when it comes to choosing treatment selections.
- Get More Rest, Exercise Regularly (If Your Doctor Approves), and Eat a Healthy Diet Rich in Natural Foods Like Fruits and Vegetables to get the maximum amount of vitamins.
- Connect with Others Suffering From Testicular Cancer: Cancer support groups may be found in almost every community. You can even communicate with cancer survivors and persons who have had testicular cancer via the internet.
- Keep in Touch With Your Loved Ones: Isolation can exacerbate anxiety and even contribute to depression in some people. Your friends and relatives want to help, so stay in touch with them and allow them to assist you.